Zeuxine Lindl.
  • Coll. Bot., App.: 1 (1826)
  • Зевксина


This is a synonym of Goodyerinae Klotzsch.

General Description

Terrestrial herb with creeping rhizomes and erect leafy stems.Inflorescence a terminal raceme; flowers small or very small, not opening widely.Petals adnate to the dorsal sepal and forming a hood with it; lateral sepals enclosing the base of the lip.Lip saccate at the base with 2 calli.Column very short, sometimes winged in front, with 2 lateral stigma lobes.Rostellum deeply divided; pollinia pyriform, the caudicle attached to the rostellum by an oblong viscidium.

Sepals subequal; dorsal erect, concave; lateral spreading, free. Petals narrow, often cohering with the dorsal sepal into a galea. Lip very shortly adnate to the base of the column, erect, concave or subsaccate at the base, but not protruded beyond the lateral sepals; with or without a pair of calli inside, more or less contracted in the middle, dilated at the apex into a small entire, or larger bilobed, spreading limb. Column very short; clinandrium short, continuous with the margin of the rostellum. Anther erect or inclined in front, oblong, shortly apiculate; cells contiguous with the outer valves, broad; pollinia granular, affixed to a linear or cuneate stipes with a broad, rounded gland, descending behind the rostellum. Stigmas 2, lateral; rostellum erect, short and broad or minute. Capsule small, erect, ovoid or subglobose. —Slender or dwarf terrestrial herbs, with short creeping rhizomes, and ascending or erect, simple stems. Leaves sessile on the broad sheath, and linear, or petiolate with an ovate or lanceolate limb, often membranous. Flowers small, numerous, arranged in dense or slender spikes. Bracts membranous, mostly shorter than the flowers.

Terrestrial herbs, with long creeping rhizomes and erect leafy stems. Leaves sessile or petiolate, linear or ovate, with broad sheathing bases. Inflorescence terminal; scape with few sheaths; raceme long and slender with many small flowers, or short with fewer larger flowers. Flowers hardly opening. Petals connivent with dorsal sepal to form a hood; lateral sepals enclosing base of lip. Lip saccate at the base with 2 calli; mid-lobe shortly clawed or sessile, entire or bilobed. Column very short, with or without wings in front; 2 lateral stigmatic lobes; rostellum deeply divided; pollinia pyriform, with caudicle attached by an oblong viscidium to the rostellum.

Terrestrial or sometimes lithophytic herbs. Rhizome subterranean or superficial, of few to many internodes. Stem with few to many, scattered to subrosulate leaves. Leaves sometimes withered at anthesis, without or with a short-petiolate base dilating into a tubular, amplexicaul sheath; lamina linear-lanceolate or obliquely ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, yellowish green to blackish velvet, sometimes with a white to purplish longitudinal stripe. Inflorescence one- to many-flowered, glabrous to pubescent; peduncle with a few crowded to scattered sheathing bracts; floral bracts equal in length to pedicel plus ovary. Flowers resupinate but sometimes erect and appearing non-resupinate, the outer surfaces of the sepals glabrous to pubescent. Lateral sepals free, enclosing base of lip, similar to dorsal sepal. Petals membranous, obliquely ligulate to ovate-elliptic, upper margin adnate to dorsal sepal. Labellum attached to up to three-quarters of the lower margins of the column; hypochile semi-globose to cymbiform, 150 with one to few, scale-like to subulate appendages on each side at the base; mesochile when present tubular, glabrous to pubescent externally, sometimes with a ridge-like to lamellate flange on each side; epichile entire to bilobed, lobules oblong to suborbicular. Column dilated; anther ovoid, biloculate; pollinia clavate to obovoid, either attached directly to an ovate-ligulate viscidium or attached to a semi-terete to ovate-subquadrate tegula, which is joined to the ligulate-lanceolate to ovate viscidium; rostellum deltoid, remnant bifid; stigma lobes separate, rarely partly confluent, lateral or at apical corners of column at the base of the rostellum; column wings when present near column margins, two, triangular to quadrate; intramarginal ridges when present two, weakly developed, glabrous to papillose; ventral pouch rarely present, starting at column base, about half the length of the column. Ovary glabrous to pubescent, twisted. Capsule with pedicels not elongating. (PO, PC).

{i}Sepals{/i} subequal; dorsal sepal erect, concave; lateral spreading, free. {i}Petals{/i} narrow, often cohering with the dorsal sepal into a galea. {i}Lip{/i} very shortly adnate to the base of the column, erect, concave or subsaccate at the base, with or without a pair of calli inside, more or less contracted in the middle, dilated at the apex into a small entire or larger 2-lobed spreading limb. {i}Column{/i} very short; anther-bed short, continuous with the margin of the rostellum. {i}Anther{/i} erect or inclined in front, oblong; shortly apiculate; cells contiguous with the outer valves, broad; pollinia granular, 2, affixed to a linear or cuneate stipes, with a broad rounded gland, descending behind the rostellum. {i}Stigmas{/i} 2, lateral; rostellum erect, short and broad or minute. {i}Capsule{/i} small, erect, ovoid or subglobose.

Ecology

The ecological requirements of the species of each section of Zeuxine are distinct. Species of section Zeuxine are tolerant of 152 high light levels and can be found growing near forest margins, grassy swampland, wasteland, grassland, and cultivated ground. Comber (1990) reported that Z. strateumatica was growing on a gravel path under the drip of a fire hydrant outside a factory in west Java. At another time he found it growing among annual weeds in a Taiwanese cabbage field. In Florida it appears in such unlikely places as lawns, road shoulders, windowboxes, and even the cracks of cement sidewalks (Luer 1972). There has been some suggestion that Z. strateumatica is better classed as an annual rather than perennial. This has yet to be proven, and the 'annual' behaviour of the plant could be linked to its habitats. Unlike most Zeuxine species, Z. strateumatica and its allies have a subterranean rather than above-ground rhizome, which gives the plants a survival advantage in harsher environments. Species of section Psychechilos are by no means homogenous in their ecological requirements. Several taxa related to Z. affinis (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f. have rhizomes and stems that thicken as the leaves wither. This generally happens toward the end of flowering, and the inflorescences may be carrying capsules through the rest season. New growth begins with the arrival of the first monsoonal rains. Those species that grow in the rain forest do not have a true rest period, and their rhizomes and stems do not thicken. (PO, PC).

Distribution

About 70 species in tropical and South Africa, Madagascar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, India, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, China, Taiwan, Burma (Myanmar), Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Japan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Caroline Islands, New Guinea, Australia, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa. One species, Z. strateumatica (L.) Schltr., is introduced in the USA (Florida) and Cuba. (PO, PC).

Uses

Zeuxine regia (Lindl.) Trimen is used medicinally in Sri Lanka Qayaweera 1981).

Literature

Coll. Bot., App. No. 18 (1826 or ? 1825) & Orch. Scel.: 9 (1826), as “ Zeuxina ”; corr. Roeper in Linnaea 2: 528 (1827), orth. et nom. conserv.

Coll. Bot., Append.: [1] (1826), as "Zeuxina"; corr. Roeper in Linnaea 2: 528 (1827), orth. et nom. conserv.

Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. Pl. iii. 599.

Collect. Bot. App. (1825); F.T.A. 7: 180. Nom. cons.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Ethiopia
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Ivory Coast
  • Nigeria
  • Sierra Leone
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Asia-Temperate China China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Ogasawara-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Iran
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Christmas I.
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia Bismarck Archipelago
  • New Guinea
  • Solomon Is.
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Northern Territory
  • Queensland
  • Pacific Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marianas
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • New Caledonia
  • Niue
  • Samoa
  • Tonga
  • Vanuatu
Introduced into
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia
  • Northern America South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Florida
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • Mississippi
  • Southwestern U.S.A. California
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil Southeast
  • Caribbean Bahamas
  • Bermuda
  • Cuba
  • Jamaica
  • Puerto Rico

Included Species

Common Names

NameLanguage
ЗевксинаRussian

  Bibliography

 Information From

Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical East Africa. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora Zambesiaca
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora Zambesiaca. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical Africa
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical Africa. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora Capensis
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora Capensis. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
OpenUp Common Names
http://openup.nhm-wien.ac.at/commonNames/
Common Names from the OpenUp! Common Names Service
  • F All Rights Reserved
WCS higher taxonomy
  • G All Rights Reserved
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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