Eichhornia crassipes Solms
  • Solms, Monogr. Phan. 4: 527 (1883)


This taxon is accepted by WCS higher taxonomy

General Description

Floating aquatic herb ± 30–50 cm. tall with erect rosulate leaves and a dense tuft of plumose roots; reproducing vegetatively by means of stolons which give rise to new plants that readily separate; broken pieces of plant also form new plants rapidly. Leaves radical, erect, emerging from the water, rosulate; blades rhomboid or ovate, obtuse at the apex, cuneate to shallowly cordate, glabrous, very densely nerved, 5–25 cm. long and broad; petioles spongy, very much swollen at or below the middle, particularly in young plants, up to 30 cm. long; stipules 2–15 cm. long, with a blade-like portion above. Flowering stems with small apical leaf ± 2 cm. long and broad, its sheath large, ± 4 cm. long and 1.5 cm. wide, enclosing the spathe. Inflorescence with long peduncle, spicate, puberulous, of ± 3–35 flowers, 4–15 cm. long, bending over after fertilization. Perianth lilac or white, the upper lobe with a deep violet blotch containing a yellow spot; outer lobes narrowly elliptic; inner broadly elliptic, ± 3 cm. long; perianth-tube pubescent, 1.5–1.8 cm. long. Stamens unequal (see note); filaments pubescent. Capsule ±1.5 cm. long. Seeds winged, 1.2 mm. long and 0.5 mm. wide.

Plant usually floating. Leaves aerial, arising in tufts, up to 8 x 8 cm, rhombic to suborbicular; petiole variable in length, the shorter ones much inflated in the lower half, and all consisting largely of spongy aerenchyma. Spike c. 15 cm, with 8-12 flowers 5-7 cm across. Anthers yellow, variably tinged with blue. Stigma capitate, coarsely papillose.

Habitat

HAB. Slowly flowing rivers, lakes formed by dams and small ponds; 0–1700 m.

Distribution

Kenya Nairobi, Aug. 1958, Agric. Dept, in E.A.H. 11830! (sterile) & Nairobi City Park, 5 May 1957, Duncan 1236!

Tanzania R. Sigi near the Amboni Sisal Estate, from estuary for several kilometres upstream, Mar. 1958, C. G. van Someren in E.A.H. 11881! Also reported from R. Pangani, and Soni in W. Usambara Mts.

Tanzania W. Usambara Mts, 6.5 km. NE. of Lushoto, Mkuzi, 11 June 1953, Drummond & Hemsley 2887!

Literature

in A.DC, Mon. Phan. 4: 527 (1883); Schwartz in E.J. 61, Beibl. 139: 34 (1927); Perrier, Cat. Pl. Madag.: 10 (1934); Täckholm & Drar, Fl. Egypt 2: 441–8 (1950); Backer in Fl. Malesiana, ser. 1, 4: 259, figs. 2 & 3 (1951); Jonker-Verhoef in Fl. Suriname 1: 85 (1953); Wild, Common Rhodesian Weeds, fig. 10 (1955), as “Eichornea”, & in Kirkia 2: 9, frontispiece (1961); Ivens, E. Afr. Weeds: 3, fig. 3 (1967).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Northern South America French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Chile Central
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Macaronesia Azores
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Sudan
  • Northern Africa Egypt
  • South Tropical Africa Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Northern Provinces
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Gambia, The
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Rodrigues
  • Réunion
  • Asia-Temperate China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Eastern Asia Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Sri Lanka
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Malaya
  • Philippines
  • Sumatera
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Norfolk Is.
  • Northern Territory
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • Europe Middle Europe Czechoslovakia
  • Southeastern Europe Italy
  • Southwestern Europe Portugal
  • Spain
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • South-Central Pacific Society Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • Southern America Caribbean Aruba
  • Bermuda
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Leeward Is.
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • Puerto Rico
  • Trinidad-Tobago
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Western South America Ecuador

  Bibliography

  • 1 Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso. Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • 2 van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora , ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
  • 3 Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • 4 Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo). Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • 5 Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(2): 1-83. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 6 Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation. Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • 7 Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • 8 Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • 9 Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • 10 Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • 11 Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • 12 Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • 13 Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • 14 Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2005). Flora of Thailand 9(1): 1-89. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • 15 Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo , ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • 16 Walderley, M.G.L., Shepherd, G.J., Melhem, T.S. & Giulietti, A.M. (eds.) (2005). Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo 4: 1-392. Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo.
  • 17 Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) (2004). Flora of the Venenzuela Guayana 8: 1-874. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • 18 Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
  • 19 Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • 20 Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferraria, A.R. (2000). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 9-11: 1-337. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F..
  • 21 Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1. Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • 22 Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • 23 B. Verdcourt (1968) Pontederiaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa 0 (0)
  • 24Webb, D.A. Eichornia Kunth. Flora Europaea 5, (1980).

 Information From

Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical East Africa. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
WCS higher taxonomy
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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