Smilax aspera 


This taxon is accepted by WCS higher taxonomy

General Description

Climbing or creeping, glabrous shrub to 15 m. Stems 4-6-angled, flexuose, unarmed or prickly. Leaves alternate; petiole 1-2 cm., not thickened towards apex, with long tendrils inserted at base; blade triangular, oblong, ovate, lanceolate, sometimes reniform, sometimes blotched with white, 3-15 cm. long, 2-7 cm. broad, acute to acuminate at the apex, cordate, hastate, truncate or sagittate at the base, coriaceous to subcoriaceous, 5-9-nerved, petiole, margins, adaxial midrib and nerves beneath sometimes prickly, prickles 1-3 mm. long. Inflorescence of sessile and subsessile umbels, inserted distichously along an extended flexuose rhachis, 1.5-15 cm. long; bracteoles very small; pedicels 2-9 mm., longer than the flowers. Perianth-segments linear-oblong to elliptic, obtuse, 2-4(-5) × 1 mm., white, cream, greenish, pink, yellowish or brownish, fragrant; inner segments equal to or more often shorter and narrower than outer. Stamens shorter than the perianth; anthers yellow-green, shorter than the filaments. Staminodes 6. Ovary green; stigmas oblong, recurved. Berry red or black, 5-8 mm. wide, 3-seeded. Fig. 1.

Habitat

HAB. Edges, clearings and rocky places of upland evergreen forest and associated bushland or thicket, often in damp places near rivers and marshes; 1450-2745 m.

Distribution

Tanzania Kitivo North Forest Reserve, Mar. 1970 (? fl.), Shabani 533!

Kenya Limuru Girls School road, Feb. 1970 (? fl. & fr), Faden 70/70!

Uganda Bwamba Hill (? fl.), Maitland 1071!

Tanzania E. Mufindi, Aug. 1933 (? fl.), Greenway 3496!

Kenya Nanyuki R., June 1943 (? fl.), Moreau 49!

Kenya Kinangop, Apr. 1938 (fr.), Chandler 2410!

Tanzania Lumakarya Forest Reserve, Mar. 1954 (♂ fl.), Paulo 281!

Uganda Kanaba Gap, Dec. 1938 (? fl.), Chandler & Hancock 2643! & Mt Muhavuru, Nkanda, Nov. 1954 (? fl.), Stauffer 935!

Literature

Sp. Pl.: 1028 (1753); A. & C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 1:163 (1878). Type: plant grown in Clifford's garden in Netherlands (BM-CLIFF)

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • South Tropical Africa Malawi (Doubtful)
  • Zambia
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Zaire
  • Asia-Temperate China China South-Central
  • Tibet
  • Western Asia Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Europe Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe (Doubtful)
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain

  Bibliography

  • 1 Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea , ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • 2 Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • 3 Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2009). Flora Zambesiaca 12(2): 1-208. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 4 Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • 5 Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • 6 Dassanayake (ed.) (2000). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 14: 1-307. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • 7 Zhengyi, W. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2000). Flora of China 24: 1-431. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • 8 Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • 9 Noltie, H.J. (1994). Flora of Bhutan 3(1): 1-456. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • 10 Rechinger, K.H., Browicz, K., Persson, K. & Wendelbo, P. (1990). Flora Iranica 165: 1-194. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • 11 Cowley, E.J. (1989). Smilacaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-4.
  • 12 E.J. Cowley (1989) Smilacaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa 0 (0)
  • 13 Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • 14 Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1985). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 3. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 1: 5-103.
  • 15 Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 16 Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • 17 Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • 18 Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1978). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 1: 1-154. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • 19 Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1978). Flora of Libya 57: 1-81. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
  • 20 Ghazanfar, S. (1977). Flora of Pakistan 107: 1-5. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • 21 Maire, R. (1958). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 5: 1-307. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
  • 22DeFilipps, R.A. Smilax L. Flora Europaea 5, 74 (1980).

 Information From

Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical East Africa. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
WCS higher taxonomy
  • B All Rights Reserved
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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