Calanthe R.Br.
  • R.Br., Bot. Reg. 7: t. 573 (1821)


This is a synonym of Collabieae Pfitzer

General Description

Large or medium-sized terrestrial or rarely epiphytic herbs. Pseudobulbs ovoid, conical or cylindrical, leafy and often obscure, 1–several-noded. Leaves plicate, petiolate, ± jointed, deciduous or persistent, often very large. Inflorescences basal, erect, racemose, laxly to densely few–many-flowered, ± pubescent. Flowers often showy and large. Sepals subsimilar. Petals mostly smaller. Lip mostly 3-lobed, rarely entire, fused at base to column, spurred at base; callus often verrucose or cristate at base of lip. Column short, fleshy; pollinia 8, clavate; viscidium elliptic or lanceolate; rostellum bifid.

Sepals subequal, free, usually widely spreading. Petals like the sepals or narrower. Lip usually more or less adnate to the column; limb spreading, 3-lobed, with the terminal one often deeply bilobed, disc variously callous or lamellate; base mostly extended into a slender spur (in the African ones invariably so). Column short, without a foot; wings usually united to the sides of the column. Anther subterminal, operculate, incumbent, 2-celled; pollinia 8, oblong or obovate, somewhat compressed, the caudicles often somewhat attenuate and united by a viscid appendage. Capsules elliptical-oblong. —Terrestrial herbs, with short leafy stems, sometimes pseudobulbous at the base. Leaves 2 to several, petiolate; limb elliptical- to oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, plicate. Scapes erect from the rhizome, often tall, with a number of sheaths towards the base. Flowers in dense or loose racemes, usually showy. Bracts lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate.

Large or medium-sized terrestrial herb; pseudobulbs leafy and often obscure, with 1 to several nodes.Leaves deciduous or persistent, petiolate, plicate.Inflorescence erect, racemose, few to many-flowered.Flowers usually large and showy; tepals spreading; lip fused to the column at base, usually 3-lobed, spurred, often with a warty callus at the base.Columnshort; pollinia 8, clavate, viscidium elliptic or lanceolate; rostellum bifid.

{i}Sepals{/i} subequal, free, usually widely spreading. {i}Petals{/i} like the sepals or narrower. {i}Lip{/i} usually more or less adnate to the column; limb spreading, 3-lobed, with the front lobe often 2-lobed; disc variously crested or lamellate; base mostly extended into a slender spur. {i}Column{/i} short, without a foot; wings usually united to the sides of the column. {i}Anther{/i} subterminal, operculate, incumbent, 2-celled; pollinia 8, oblong or obovate, somewhat compressed, the caudicles often somewhat attenuate and united by a viscid appendage. {i}Capsules{/i} elliptic-oblong.

Terrestrial or rarely epiphytic herbs. Stem cylindrical or pseudobulbous, sometimes obscurely so, several-noded, leafy along length. Leaves pleated, usually articulated. Inflorescence lateral or basal, erect, many-flowered, racemose; floral bracts persistent or caducous. Flowers resupinate, usually showy, turning blue-black when damaged and with age, glabrous or pubescent. Sepals free, spreading or less commonly campanulate. Petals smaller than sepals, free, spreading. Labellum entire or more commonly 2- to 4-lobed, connate at base to entire length of column, usually spurred at base, callus papillate, ridged or verrucose, at base of labellum. Column fleshy, connate with base of labellum; anther decumbent, pollinia eight, clavate, waxy; stigma dumbbellshaped, below anther; viscidium triangular to linear; rostellum bifid. Ovary glabrous or pubescent. Capsule oblong-ellipsoid. (PC).

Ecology

The majority of species are terrestrials, growing in leaf litter or humus on the floor of temperate to tropical forests, often in deep shade. Most temperate and tropical species grow in montane forests up to 3200 m. Calanthe vestita is an epiphyte, growing in moss on trunks and branches of trees in tropical forests. (PC).

Distribution

Calanthe is a genus of about 260 species widely distributed in Africa, Madagascar, the Indian Ocean islands, tropical and east temperate Asia, Japan, Taiwan, southeast Asia, the Malay Archipelago, the Philippines, New Guinea, the western and southwestern Pacific islands, northern and eastern Australia, and a single species in tropical America. (PC).

Uses

Lawler (1984) reported several different types of uses for Calanthe species, most not identified. Stems of one species are used to adorn the nasal septum of boys during puberty rites of the Kukukuku of New Guinea. Leaves of one species are used to wrap food for cooking in the Jimmi area of Papua New Guinea. Indigo dyes are derived from C. triplicata and C. vestita. In folk medicine, different parts of the plant are used to treat internal bleeding and aching bones, increase salivation, and cure diarrhoea. Roots of C. triplicata are chewed to cure diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal ailments and reduce swelling. Several species and their hybrids are also common in cultivation. (AP)

Literature

in Edw., Bot. Reg- t. 573 (1821); F.T.A. 7: 45. Nom. cons.

in Bot. Reg. 7, t. 573 (1821); Rolfe in F.T.A. 7: 45 (1897); Schltr. in F.R., Beih. 1: 376 (1912); Seidenf. in Dansk Bot. Arkiv 29 (2): 9 (1975), nom. conserv.

Benth. et Hook. Gen. Pl. iii. 520.

in Bot. Reg. 7, t. 573 (1821) nom conserv. —Rolfe in F.T.A. 7: 45 (1897).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Guinea
  • Nigeria
  • Sierra Leone
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Comoros
  • Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Réunion
  • Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Tibet
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Kazan-retto
  • Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Ogasawara-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia Bismarck Archipelago
  • New Guinea
  • Solomon Is.
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Norfolk Is.
  • Queensland
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • Pacific Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marianas
  • South-Central Pacific Marquesas
  • Society Is.
  • Tubuai Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • New Caledonia
  • Samoa
  • Santa Cruz Is.
  • Tonga
  • Vanuatu
  • Wallis-Futuna Is.
  • Southern America Caribbean Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Jamaica
  • Central America Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Panamá
  • Western South America Colombia

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Clayton, D. & Cribb, P. (2013). The Genus Calanthe: 1-411. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.
  • 2 Kurzweil, H. (2010). A precursory study of the Calanthe group (Orchidaceae) in Thailand. Adansonia , III, 32: 57-107.
  • 3 Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2006). Epidendroideae (Part One). Genera Orchidacearum 4: 1-672. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • 4 Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 5 Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. Continental Publishing, Deurne.
  • 6Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. Genera Orchidacearum. Epidendroideae (Part 1). Genera Orchidacearum 4, (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2005).
  • 7 Brown, R. Original publication of Calanthe. 7, (1821).

 Information From

Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of West Tropical Africa. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical East Africa. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical Africa
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical Africa. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora Zambesiaca
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora Zambesiaca. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora Capensis
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora Capensis. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
WCS higher taxonomy
  • F All Rights Reserved
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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