Vallisneria spiralis L.
  • L., Sp. Pl. : 1015 (1753)


This taxon is accepted by WCS higher taxonomy

General Description

Leaves up to 10 mm wide, basal, ribbon-like, obtuse or rounded at the apex, denticulate towards the apex, with reddish dots or short streaks. Male spathes ovoid, shortly pedunculate. Peduncles of female spathes filiform, becoming spirally coiled after anthesis; sepals of female flowers 1.75-4 mm, pinkish-white.

Stems creeping and stoloniferous, narrowly terete, 0.6–1.9 mm. in diameter. Leaves 0.5–40(–57) cm. long, 1.7–12 mm. wide, mid-green to dark green with numerous, minute, longitudinal and transverse reddish brown striations; leaf-margins green, entire to coarsely serrate. Male spathe with peduncle up to 7 cm. long; spathe 4–5.5 mm. long, 2.3–2.5 mm. wide, light brown, containing up to ± 50 flowers. Male flowers: sepals up to ± 0.5 mm. long. Female spathe: peduncle up to 100 cm. long; body of spathe 8–19 mm. long, 0.95–2 mm. wide, whitish to light brown. Female flower: sepals narrowly ovate to ovate, 1.8–3 mm. long, 0.7–1.8 mm. wide, light brown to reddish brown, often dotted or striated with dark reddish brown; petals narrowly ovate, ± 0.5 mm. long, ± 0.2 mm. wide; ovary 10–25 mm. long, ± 1 mm. wide; stigmas shallowly or deeply bifid, fringed, ± 2 mm. long. Fruit 10–30 mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide, brown or reddish brown, often dotted or striated with dark reddish brown. Seeds 1.3–2 mm. long, ± 0.5 mm. wide, papillose, brown, with reddish brown striations. Fig. 5.

Diagnostic Description

Plant of fresh water, submerged. Stems short, stoloniferous, leaves basal, linear, ribbon-like; dioecious; flowers small, with minute, vestigial petals; stamens 2-3; styles 3.

Habitat

HAB. Still, fresh or brackish water up to 3.5 m. deep; 475–1800 m.

Distribution

Uganda Entebbe, edge of Lake Victoria, Jan. 1938, Chandler 2091!

Tanzania Lake Malawi, Lukoma, 1887, Bellingham !

Kenya Nandi hills, 25 Aug. 1985, Odero 1!

Tanzania Lake Province: shores of Lake Victoria, 26 Oct. 1938, Vanderplank !

Tanzania in Lake Tanzania, 20 December 1971, Harris 6073!

Uganda Lake Victoria, Jinja, Ekunu Bay, 30 Dec. 1955, Roberts in EAH. 1/1951! & Jinja, Napoleon Bluff, Apr. 1955, Greenway 8828

Literature

Sp. Pl.: 1015 (1753); Guerke in P.O.A. C: 95 (1895); Wright in F.T.A. 7: 5 (1897); U.KW.F.: 649 (1974); Lowden in Aquat. Bot. 13: 285, fig. 3 (1982).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Ethiopia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • South Tropical Africa Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Caprivi Strip
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Namibia
  • West Tropical Africa Ghana
  • Mali
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Cameroon (Doubtful)
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • India
  • Pakistan
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Europe Eastern Europe South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Switzerland
  • Southeastern Europe Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Romania
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe France
  • Portugal
  • Spain
Introduced into
  • Africa Western Indian Ocean Mauritius
  • Réunion
  • Europe Middle Europe Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Northern Europe Great Britain

  Bibliography

  • 1 Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • 2 Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • 3 Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 17: 1-298. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • 4 Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • 5 Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2009). Flora Zambesiaca 12(2): 1-208. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 6 Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • 7 Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • 8 Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • 9 Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • 10 Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • 11 Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • 12 Boulos, L. (1995). Flora of Egypt Checklist: i-xii, 1-287. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • 13 David Simpson (1989) Hydrocharitaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa 0 (0)
  • 14 Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • 15 Simpson, D. (1989). Hydrocharitaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-29.
  • 16 Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • 17 Ghafoor, A. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 169: 1-13. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • 18 Khan, M.S. & Mahbuba Halim (1985). Flora of Bangladesh 28: 1-15. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • 19 Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1985). Flora of Iraq 8: 1-440. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • 20 Bosser, J. & al. (1984). Flore des Mascareignes 191-201: IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • 21 Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1984). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 8: 1-632. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • 22 Symoens, J.J. & Villiers, J.-F. (1984). Alismatidées, Flagellariacées. Flore du Cameroun 26: 1-84. Ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche scientifique (Mesres), Yaoundé.
  • 23 Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • 24 Smitinand, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (1978). Flora of Thailand 1: 1-694. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • 25 Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • 26 Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • 27 Rechinger. K.H. (1971). Flora Iranica 78-86: Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • 28 Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1968). Flora of West Tropical Africa , ed. 2, 3(1): 1-276.
  • 29 Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • 30 Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • 31 Maire, R. (1952). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 1: 1-366. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
  • 32 Nikitina, E.V. & Protopopov, G.F. (eds.) (1952). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 1: 1-103. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
  • 33 Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • 34 Dandy, J.E. Vallisneria L. Flora Europaea 5, 5 (1980).

 Information From

Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical East Africa. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
WCS higher taxonomy
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    © Cambridge University Press 1980

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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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