Zannichellia palustris L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 969 (1753) 
  • horned pondweed


Notes: Distribution: Cosmopolitan

General Description

Aquatic, mat-forming, brittle annual or perennial, up to 0.5 m long, forming submerged grass-like turf. Leaves opposite or upper ones ternate, linear. Flowers inconspicuous.

Submerged aquatic herb forming dense tangled mats, resembling fine grass; rhizome thin, branching freely; stems erect, to 50 cm long. Leaves 1–3 per node, ternate, opposite or alternate, greenish brown, subterete or linear, 1.2–5 cm long, 0.5–2 mm wide, at base with or without tubular, membranous sheath, at apex attenuate; axillary scales minute. Flowers almost consistently 1 ੒and a cluster of ੐together at each pseudowhorl or distally sometimes੒alone, each surrounded by a membranous sheath; staminate flower of a single stamen, filament elongating at anthesis, to 2 cm long, anther 4–8-locular, at base with small axial protuberance, at apex with gland; pollen glandular; pistillate flowers (1–)4–5(–8) in pseudo-umbel, when immature enclosed in cupular sheath, peduncle 1–5 mm long, carpel ovoid, stipitate, stigma spoon-shaped but rapidly disintegrating. Fruit reniform, 2–6 mm long, with a keel and protuberances on convex and sometimes concave sides, stipitate, with persistent style.

Habitat

Fresh or brackish pools.

HAB. In rivers and pools, on rocky and stony substrate, in fresh to slightly alkaline water 2.5–45 cm deep, where it may be locally dominant over small areas; 1450–1800 m

Distribution

Tanzania Ngare Nanyuki R. near market, Jan. 1971, Richards & Arasululu 26610!

Tanzania Ngorongoro Crater, Gaitokitok Springs, Nov. 1956, Greenway 9061!;

Tanzania Titushi R., Apr. 1961, Greenway 10100!;

Northern, central and southeastern Namibia, Eksteenfontein, Calvinia, Cape Peninsula to Port Elizabeth through to Free State and Gauteng, ± cosmopolitan.

Literature

Sp. Pl.: 969 (1753); Bennett in F.T.A. 8: 225 (1901); Oberm. in F.S.A. 1: 77 (1966); Dandy in Fl. Iraq 8: 29, t. 11 (1985).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Tanzania
  • Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Rodrigues
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Gulf States
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • South Australia
  • New Zealand New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • Krym
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Great Britain
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Nunavut
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Southern America Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Western South America Colombia
  • Peru

Common Names

NameLanguage
horned pondweed

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WCS higher taxonomy
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