Notes: Distribution: Subarctic and Temp. Eurasia to Trop. African Mts., N. America to Guatemala, Caribbean
Evergreen trees or shrubs, monoecious or dioecious. Leaves usually decussate, elliptic, appressed, imbricate and small on mature plants but subulate and spreading on juveniles. Male cones of several rounded decussate scales bearing 2–6 pollen-sacs. Female strobili on short lateral shoots, of 2–8 usually decussate fleshy scales each bearing one ovule; mature strobilus a berry-like fruit, the scales swollen, fleshy and confluent. Seeds 1 or few; testa woody.
Shrubs and trees when young or throughout life with linear spiny leaves in whorls of 3 or paired, or when adult with scale-like, opposite leaves or mixed foliage, usually dioecious. Cones on short branchlets or males axillary, of rounded, shield-shaped scales bearing 2–6 pollen sacs; females of 2–4 series of scales in pairs or whorls of 3, each with 1–2 ovules; mature cone fleshy, with few to 1 seed with woody testa.
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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