Juniperus L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 1038 (1753) 
  • Junipers


Notes: Distribution: Subarctic and Temp. Eurasia to Trop. African Mts., N. America to Guatemala, Caribbean

General Description

Evergreen trees or shrubs, monoecious or dioecious. Leaves usually decussate, elliptic, appressed, imbricate and small on mature plants but subulate and spreading on juveniles. Male cones of several rounded decussate scales bearing 2–6 pollen-sacs. Female strobili on short lateral shoots, of 2–8 usually decussate fleshy scales each bearing one ovule; mature strobilus a berry-like fruit, the scales swollen, fleshy and confluent. Seeds 1 or few; testa woody.

Shrubs and trees when young or throughout life with linear spiny leaves in whorls of 3 or paired, or when adult with scale-like, opposite leaves or mixed foliage, usually dioecious. Cones on short branchlets or males axillary, of rounded, shield-shaped scales bearing 2–6 pollen sacs; females of 2–4 series of scales in pairs or whorls of 3, each with 1–2 ovules; mature cone fleshy, with few to 1 seed with woody testa.

Literature

Sp. Pl. 2: 1038 (1753); Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 461 (1754).

Sp. Pl. : 1038 (1753) and Gen. Pl, ed. 5 : 461 (1754)

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • South Tropical Africa Malawi
  • Zimbabwe
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Zaire
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Ogasawara-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Magadan
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Yakutskiya
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • East Himalaya
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • Krym
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Føroyar
  • Great Britain
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Labrador
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexican Pacific Is.
  • Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Greenland
  • Northwest Territories
  • Nunavut
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Southern America Caribbean Bahamas
  • Bermuda
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Guatemala
Introduced into
  • Africa Middle Atlantic Ocean Ascension
  • St.Helena
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • Lesotho

Included Species

Common Names

NameLanguage
JunipersEnglish
enarSwedish
einerslektaNorwegian Nynorsk
katajatFinnish
АрчаRussian
einerslektaNorwegian Bokmål
enarSwedish
JuniperEnglish
МожжевельникRussian

  Bibliography

  • 1 Adams, R.P. (2008). Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus ed. 2: 1-402. Trafford publishing Co., Vancouver.
  • 2 R. Melville (1958) Gymnospermae. Flora of Tropical East Africa 0 (0)

 Information From

Flora Zambesiaca
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora Zambesiaca. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
Flora of Tropical East Africa. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
OpenUp Common Names
http://openup.nhm-wien.ac.at/commonNames/
Common Names from the OpenUp! Common Names Service
  • C All Rights Reserved
WCS higher taxonomy
  • D All Rights Reserved
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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