Hordeum secalinum 
  • Schreb., Spic. Fl. Lips.: 148 (1771)

This taxon is accepted by WCS higher taxonomy

General Description

Stems 15-70 cm, slender, erect; nodes glabrous. Leaves 0.2-0.5 cm wide, glabrous below, sparsely pubescent above; walls of epidermal cells sinuate; sheaths hairy below. Spike 2-5(-6) cm. Rhachis ciliate, disarticulating at maturity. Pedicels of lateral spikelets up to 1.5 mm; central spikelet sessile. Lemma of central spikelet 3-6 mm, lanceolate, glabrous, shortly awned.

perennial, tufted; culms slender, erect or geniculate-ascending, 1–2 ft. long, glabrous, smooth, 4-noded, internodes exserted; sheaths rather tight, thin, striate, glabrous, or the lower hairy, at length withering away or breaking up into fine fibres; ligule very short, truncate, hyaline; blades linear, long tapering to a fine point, 2–10 in. by 1 1/2–3 lin., flat, slightly involute, somewhat stiff to flaccid, subglaucous, glabrous, or sparingly hairy, closely striate and scabrid on the upper side; spike erect, straight or flexuous, 1–3 in. long, light green to glaucous, bristle often purple; rhachis fragile, flattened, margins scabrid; Spikelets 3 at each node, intermediate sessile, hermaphrodite, lateral shortly pedicelled, ♂ or barren; Glumes equal, reduced to straight scabrid bristles, slightly channelled on the inner side, 6–9 lin. long, those of the intermediate spikelet close to the floret, of the lateral more or less distant from it; valve of hermaphrodite floret lanceolate, subinvolute, gradually narrowed into the awn, 3 1/2–4 1/2 lin. long, herbaceous-chartaceous, smooth or scabrid in the upper part, 5-nerved; awn exceeding the Glumes ; pales narrow, keels scaberulous; anthers over 2 lin. long; grain more or less adhering to the valve and pale, oblong, 2 lin. long, semiterete, deeply grooved in front; embryo 1/2 lin. long; ♂ or barren Spikelets similar to the hermaphrodite, but smaller and with the awn exceeded by the Glumes .




South Africa Graaff Reinet Div.; in a valley at Houd Constant Waterfall, in the Sneeuwberg Range, 3500 ft., {i}Bolus{/i}, 1965! banks of the Sunday River, 2600 ft., {i}Bolus{/i}, 1965! Victoria West Div.; between Brak River and Uitvlugt, 3000–4000 ft., {i}Drège{/i}. Aliwal North Div.; by the Kraai River, {i}Drège!{/i} Albert Div.; without precise locality, {i}Cooper{/i}, 646!

South Africa Malmesbury Div.; Saldanha Bay and Zwartland, {i}Thunberg!{/i} Cape Div.; between Table Mountain and Devils Mountain, {i}Bergius{/i}. Paarden Island, {i}Wolley Dod{/i}, 3165! on the shore of Table Bay, {i}Wolley Dod{/i}, 3227! by the Raapenberg Vley, {i}Wolley Dod{/i}, 3113! Swellendam Div.; mountain ridges along the lower part of the Zonder Einde River, {i}Zeyher{/i}, 4558! Queenstown Div.; between Table Mountain and Zwart Kei River, 4000 ft., {i}Drège{/i}.

South Africa Little Namaqualand; between Pedros Kloof and Lily Fontein, 3000–4000 ft., {i}Drège{/i}.

From S. Sweden southwards to C. Spain, Sicilia and Bulgaria, but absent from a large part of C. Europe. Be Br Bu Co Cz Da Ga Ge Hb He Hs Ho ?Hu Ju Lu It Po Rm Si Su.

South Africa Orange Free State, {i}Hutton!{/i}


Spicil. Fl. Lips. 148;—Host, Gram. Austr. i. 26, t. 33; Trin. Ic. Gram. i. t. 3; Durand & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. v. 943.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa Macaronesia Madeira
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Western Asia Lebanon-Syria
  • Europe Eastern Europe Krym
  • Middle Europe Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary (Doubtful)
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Great Britain
  • Ireland
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Bulgaria
  • Italy
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Spain
Introduced into
  • Australasia Australia Victoria
  • New Zealand New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South


  • 1 Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • 2 Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand , ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • 3 Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • 4 Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 5 Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • 6 Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • 7 Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • 8 Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • 9 (By O. Stapf.) (1900) Gramineæ. Flora Capensis 7 (0)
  • 10Humphries, C.J. Hordeum L. . Flora Europaea 5, 204-205 (1980).

 Information From

Flora Capensis
Flora Capensis. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/efloras/
WCS higher taxonomy
  • B All Rights Reserved
  • C

    © Cambridge University Press 1980

    All Rights Reserved
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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